The Romanian legal framework for national system for validation of non-formal and informal learning was created in 2011. However, challenges remain in quality assurance and financing in the validation system, several recent policies are widening accessibility for potential beneficiaries. The focus is on competencies identified. As a national level centralised institution the National Qualifications Authority (NQA) is coordinating local validation activities at national level by regulating quality assurance of validation process, implementing education and qualification of validation experts and register them on national level. The local assessment centres apply the policies and methodologies defined on national level.
Romania has no specific policies in validating skills of immigrants/refugees. Their cases are incorporated into the validation of skills acquired by individuals with work experience from abroad according to the new LLL strategy. The strategy specifies priority target groups: unemployed or inactive individuals, people that had work experience abroad, staff working in public administration and disadvantaged groups.
VPL in Higher Education
There is a lack of integrated validation mechanism in the education system, generally. Validation of non-formal and informal prior learning in relation to obtain the same type of certification for general education, upper secondary level, IVET or university level is allowed only in the case of Second Chance Programme in order to provide flexible access to a certain chosen educational pathway. There is no specific policy or legislation on validation by means of open educational resources in Romania.
Validation in the Labour Market
There are no specific policies or regulations on validation in Romania aiming to help people to access the labour market or to support their career development. However, there are validation services for job seekers which are free of charge. Job seekers are also entitled to receive specific recommendations for a further training programme or for an assessment of their competences, based on counselling services provided.
In Romania there is no direct link between validation and counselling. In pre-university education students may use a lifelong learning portfolio which contains evidence of learning outcomes acquired in formal, non-formal and informal contexts. This evidence helps to facilitate the individual school path of students and creates better access for them to the labour market.
Sectoral Committees (social dialogue structures comprising employee and employer representatives) may develop their own assessment centres, however no specific progress has been detected in the area of skills audits.